How Nigeria Can Turn its Huge Cashew Waste Into Valuable Citric Acid

Cashew apples. VW Pics via Getty Images Agbaje Lateef, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso and Adeoye O. Adekunle (PhD), Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso Nigeria – the sixth largest producer of cashew nuts globally – exports more than 80% of its raw cashews primarily to Vietman and India where they are processed into […]

How Climate Change, Overfishing and COVID Drove Irregular Migration From West Africa

Crossing the Mediterranean has taken thousands of West African lives. Flickr Álvaro Enríquez de Salamanca, Universidad Complutense de Madrid Throughout 2020, 23,023 irregular immigrants arrived on the coast of the Canary Islands, 757% more than the previous year. In 2021 the figure fell slightly to 22,316 people but it is still much higher than previous […]

Electric Vehicles in South Africa: How to Avoid Making Them the Privilege of the Few

Electric Cars being recharged in Paris. South Africa needs to subsidise entry level vehicles to boost sales. Photo by: Dukas/Universal Images Group via Getty Images Gaylor Montmasson-Clair, University of Johannesburg In the early 1900s, automobiles took the streets of industrialised cities by storm, rapidly displacing horse-drawn vehicles. Fiercely contested at first, the internal combustion engine […]

A Root Cause of Flooding in Accra: Developers Clogging Up the City’s Wetlands

Wetlands in Accra have become popular targets for developers. Wikimedia Commons Christopher Gordon, University of Ghana Ghana has six designated Ramsar sites. These are wetlands designated under the criteria of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, an international treaty that seeks to protect them. In Ghana, these sites are mainly along the coast and are meant […]